While certain studies have utilized an area averaging technique, others have assessed ligamentum flavum thickness using a single measurement located at the approximate “middle” of the ligamentum flavum [2, 5, 13, 15, 16]. Thickness measurements are associated with disc degeneration grade as shown in Fig 3. Herniated Disc Frustration Results for the low back pain group versus the asymptomatic group are summarized in Table 3. Surgery. B. Lee, This is extremely rare, but is possible and is often not correctly diagnosed until an operation is performed. When it becomes inflamed or lax, it can cause or contribute to central spinal stenosis on the posterior side of the vertebral canal. Previous studies showed that the ligamentum flavum thickness at the segments L 2/3 , L 3/4 , L 4/5 and L 5 /S 1 was positively correlated with age. Disc height at each level was measured by the least-distance measurement method in three-dimensional models created by CT images taken for the same subject [14, 20]. At L4-5, there is disc desiccation. This condition affects the yellow ligaments (ligamentum flava) which attach the individual vertebrae to one another, posterior to the central spinal canal. All other comparisons did not reach significance. Statistical significance was achieved at fewer levels than with the medial ligamentum flavum measure, with L1 thickness being significantly less than L3, L4, and L5; and L2 significantly less than L4. Tissue inhibitors of matrix metallo-proteinase (TIMPs) are proteinase inhibitors that suppress extracellular matrix degradation. Paired t-tests were used to compare thickness on left and right sides. Disc height and both ligamentum flavum thickness measurements showed low to moderate correlations that reached significance (p < 0.01). As a control group, 20 ligaments of 10 human corpses were processed in the same way. Purpose To examine ligamentum flavum thickness using magnetic resonance (MR) images to evaluate its association with low back pain symptoms, age, gender, lumbar level, and disc characteristics. Partial spinal stenosis is rarely anything of consequence and is actually a completely normal part of aging for the cervical and lumbar spinal regions. PLoS ONE 10(5): central versus lateral. At all levels except L5/S1, medial ligamentum flavum thickness was greater than lateral ligamentum flavum thickness. Know the facts about the condition before seeking any drastic treatment option to minimize your chances of falling victim to failed spinal surgery syndrome, since invasive procedures are the usual therapy protocol. here. Medial and lateral ligamentum flavum measurements were related to disc height, and disc grade. Lumbar Discs https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128321, Academic Editor: Tian-wu Chen, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, CHINA, Received: November 18, 2014; Accepted: April 26, 2015; Published: May 26, 2015, Copyright: © 2015 Munns et al. Percentages are calculated with respect to the total number of subjects. It is a degenerative disease which involves the compression of nerves. Our study confirmed an increase in ligamentum flavum thickness both medially and laterally as age increased and as lumbar level increased (caudally), through the L4/5 level. Our objective was compariso n of histological properties of ligamentum flavum in Lumbar spinal ca nal stenosis patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Patient has a congenitally narrowed central canal and moderate to advanced spinal degeneration in addition to ligament hypertrophy. Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy is also commonly known as ligamentum flavum thickening. 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